Ethernet Cable


Routers and Protocols

The main service of a router is to provide or transmit data using layer 3 addresses. This is known as routing routing occurs at the network layer which is layer 3.

A wan operates at layer 1, 2, 3 so a router is both a WAN and a LAN. This is why it has a LAN and WAN interface.

Routers require an IOS the same way computers need an OS. Routers use routing protocols to determine the best path for packets. When a router is setup properly it provides:

Consistent end to end addressing,

Addresses that representnetwork topologies,

best path selection,

Dynamic and static routing,


Routing Protocols Description

Protocol suites are collections of protocols that enable hosts to communicate. Without protocols a computer can not rebuild the stream of incoming bits from another computer in to the original format.

Protocols control how the physical network is built, and how computers connect to the network.They control how data is formated for transmission & how it is sent. Protocols know how to deal with errors.

Bus Topology

A bus topology uses a single backbone cable that is terminated at both ends. All hosts on this network connect directly to this backbone.


Ring Topology

A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last to the first.


Star Topology

A start topology connects all cables to a central point


Hierarchiacal Topology

This is linked to a computer that controls all the traffic on the topology.


Mesh Topology

Each host has it's own connections to all other hosts


Extended Star Topology

This method links individual start together by connecting the hubs or switches


Logical Topology

The logial topology of a network determines how the hosts communicate across the medium. The two most common types of logical topology are broadcast and token passing


Broadcast Topology

This indicates that each host sends it's data to all other hosts on the network medium. There is no order to follow for these type of stations it is simply first come first server.


Token Passing

An electronic token is passed sequentially to each host, when a host receives the token that host can then send data on the network.